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After gaining Tortoise Head and Access Gaps, the defenders from the reinforced Black Canyon group succeeded in stalling the Hokan offensive on day four of the battle, a conclusion supported by a petroglyph located at the Inscription Canyon–West site. At the same time, on a parallel course, the potential re-reinforcements from Lost Site had their own hands full trying to reach the same objective, the base of the spur, by another route.














On day five, however, the Hokan revitalized their relentless series of attacks and restarted the bloody business of pushing the defenders further up the hill.














As the Uto-Aztecan defenders retreated their way up the mountain, their strategy was clear; as their numbers diminished, they needed to reduce their defensive perimeter to a more manageable level. Therefore, their objective was to reach the base of the ‘spur’ were they could maintain a single, defensive line against frontal attack, while also insuring they could not be attacked on their right and left flanks. By the end of day five, the defenders had succeeded in reaching the base of the spur, but the planned reconsolidation failed. The Hokan (red arrows) had succeeded in driving a wedge between the main body of defenders from Black Canyon to the west (solid yellow arrows) and the second group of reinforcements from Lost Site. (dashed yellow arrows)















Black Mountain Spur














The graphic above is the Black Mountain ‘spur’, seen from space. The spur resembles a phallus and is represented in many petroglyphs.

As stipulated earlier, the reinforcements from Lost Site had their hands full. The Lost Site defenders were being chased up the mountain by the attackers as they, the defenders, worked their way to the reconsolidation point. However, when the Lost Site defenders arrived at the reconsolidation point, they were attacked on their left flank by the Hokan attackers previously pursuing the main body. This flanking attack forced them toward the East Wall, many died when they were pushed off the cliffs at Small Point and others closer to the narrowing of the spur.














A prime example of the valiant, all-or-nothing, effort put forth by the defenders is the breakout and counterattack by a large group of Lost Site defenders. This breakout is recorded in several glyphs, including ‘Dictionary’ Rock at the Inscription Canyon-East site.


It would be a misconception to assume each of these actions were taking place independently. In reality, the Black Canyon defenders (dashed arrows) and the Lost Site defenders were repelling wave after wave of attacks, a total of nine on day five. The graphic below shows the number of skirmishes each day for 9 days:













                              8   |   6  |  8  |   4   |  9 | 9| 10|12  |14

By the end of day five, the Hokan had decimated the Uto-Aztecan forces, but the survivors held on, buying precious ‘time’ with their lives. Their struggle was no longer to survive, but to give their loved ones and extended families the opportunity to escape the coming aftermath of bloodshed and carnage.














On the morning of the sixth day, the Uto-Aztecan forces were still able to muster a defensive blockade across the narrows of the spur. This blockading tactic served its warriors well over the next three days. While hundreds, perhaps thousands, had died in active combat or been pushed over numerous cliff faces, still, Uto-Aztecan defenders held on.













The graphic above demonstrates the movement of the defensive blockade as the attackers pushed forward. Notice the oscillation of the blockade line. It appears that the Uto-Aztecan were a tough bunch and that a full frontal attack was ineffective against their stalwart defense. Therefore, the Hokan began a process of focusing combat power first on one side of the line, then on the other. The increasing number of attacks and the targeted pressure on the defensive line took a heavy toll on the defenders, while the attackers had alternating periods of rest. This process of targeted attacks and rest periods for the Hokan lasted three days.


Battle’s End


The morning of day nine, the last day of battle…














The petroglyph evidence collected thus far does not provide details of what happened on the ninth day of battle, only that it required fourteen assaults to complete the destruction of the Uto-Aztecan forces. The destruction was not, however, as complete as one might assume. As in all massacres, some, much to their dismay, had survived and were held captive. The Hokan held council, smoked and discussed the fate of the Uto-Aztecan survivors, long into the night.


Day Ten, the Aftermath














The morning of the tenth day saw the surviving Uto-Aztecan warriors tortured and mutilated, death was a blessing, their bodies thrown over the cliffs at three different points around the tip of the spur. This assessment supported by the ‘Bug’ petroglyph at Inscription Canyon-East. Sparse evidence also suggests that some of the Uto-Aztecan warriors were alive when they were thrown off the cliff faces…




This is only one Native American historical event; thousands more remain to be translated from the pictographic record. According to modern, cultural anthropological convention, the forgoing never happened, because ‘there is no archeological evidence’ to support such conclusions. Not that there wasn’t archaeological evidence at one time, but that there is ‘no longer’ ‘recognized’ archaeological evidence. Fierce competition for research dollars resulted in a lack of funding for any research not worthy of ‘glory’ and substantial monetary gain, by European Elitist standards, for the ‘qualified’ researcher; an Americanized philosophical approach to research which continues to this day. For many years, former residence of Hinkley, California supplemented their annual incomes selling “Arrowheads”, found within the Complex, to Eastern buyers from New York, Boston and other port cities with businesses exporting Native American artifacts to the French, German and other affluent European collectors willing to pay the highly inflated prices for American Indian Cultural items of any kind.

The purpose of this site is to inspire awareness, preservation and research of all rock art/writings. As the site grows and develops, it is hoped that YOU will help in these efforts by submitting questions, comments and suggestions: Our primary means of communication is the 'Contact' button above.






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