Secondary Attack Route:

 

While the primary attack (left Arrow) appears to have originated from the San Joaquin and Coastal Valleys, the location of a Hokan speaking group living near Reno, Nevada called the Washoe suggests that the Secondary attack on the Black Mountain Complex had its starting point in the Lake Tahoe or Reno area. The attackers appear to have traveled down the Armargosa Valley, proceeded through present day Red Pass near Salt Creek, crossed the future National Training Center, Fort Irwin, negotiated a narrow pass in the Paradise Mountain Range and attacked the Complex at Lost Site from the Superior Dry Lake Bed in the current day Superior Valley, northwest of Barstow, California.  The Secondary attack displayed as the right arrow in the graphic below:  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A rock alignment on the Superior Valley floor near ‘Ram Mesa’ provides details that suggest a large group of Uto-Aztecan were pursued upon to the mesa.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the purpose of preservation and security, the location of the rock alignment is on file with the Barstow Area Office of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The graphic above displays the context of the rock alignment. The rock alignment can be interpreted in the following manner: A large war party of Uto-Aztecan were chased upon to the mesa by a smaller war party of Hokan, who, in turn, were followed by a group (red dot) that may have been follow-on warriors held in reserve or non-combatant support functions such as cooks, medical practitioners and/or weapons makers. The rock formation also stipulates that the Hokan were in contact with the Uto-Aztecan. The pointed configuration indicates ‘war/fighting’. Therefore, the tip of the solid red, arrowhead, figure touching the larger, spearhead shaped outline suggests that this was a running battle.

 

While the smaller attacking force pressed a running battle up on to Ram Mesa, a larger force of Hokan attacked the Uto-Aztecan stationed at or near the narrow gap at Lost Site.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glyphs on both sides of Lost Site attest to the presence of armed conflict. As the forces of the Uto-Aztecan dwindled, they began an organized withdrawal from their position, moving south along the base of the cliff face, but did not proceed toward present day Murphy’s Well where they could have become trapped.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Below, the graphic demonstrates how the Uto-Aztecan defenders lead the attacking Hokan (red arrow) into an ambush by Uto-Aztecan warriors waiting in the gap.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The gap, in military terms is a choke point where the attacking Hokan were forced, by the terrain, to fight hand-to-hand with knives and war clubs, because the confined space prevented them from using their more advanced weapons system, the atlatl and dart.

 

The overview below shows the Uto-Aztecan dividing into three groups as they withdrew from the Lost Site ambush/gap.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

One group executed an attack against the right flank of the Hokan pursuing the survivors of the Black Wash attack and two days of fighting within Black Canyon.

A second group (yellow arrow-center) of survivors from Lost Site reinforced the Black Canyon survivors. Together they proceeded toward Tortoise Head Gap. The third group (top-left yellow arrow) continued on, drawing more Hokan attackers away from the main Uto-Aztecan forces headed for Tortoise Head Gap. A petroglyph at Deer Valley Rock Art Center, Phoenix, Arizona supports these tactics and pre-planned strategies.

 

Tortoise Head Gap

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The graphic above displays Tortoise Head Gap, a strategic, natural terrain feature that creates a military ‘choke point’ where hundreds or thousands of warriors on both sides were forced to fight hand-to-hand combat. By relocating into the Tortoise Head Gap, the Uto-Aztecans, armed primarily with thrusting spears, gained weapons parity with their enemy the Hokan.

 

Below, the various arrows demonstrate the actions and movement of the two forces. The solid red arrow represents the Hokan as they pursued their prey, the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Uto-Aztecan, relocating from Black Canyon. The dashed red arrow represents Hokan warriors drawn off the main force by the Uto-Aztecan group from Lost Site, represented by the yellow dotted arrow. The Dashed yellow arrow were defenders who attacked the right flank of the Hokan as they pursued the defenders from both Black Canyon and Lost Site, as a more formidable combined force.

 

The Tortoise Head Gap is so called because it can be seen from a long distance and is represented by a manufactured replica located across from Inscription Canyon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Secondary Attack

 

While the primary attack (left Arrow) appears to have originated from the San Joaquin and Owens Valleys, the location of a Hokan speaking group living near Reno, Nevada called the Washoe suggests that the Secondary attack on the Black Mountain Complex had its starting point in the Lake Tahoe or Reno area. The attackers appear to have traveled down the Armargosa Valley, proceeded through present day Red Pass near Salt Creek, crossed the future National Training Center, Fort Irwin, negotiated a narrow pass in the Paradise Mountain Range and attacked the Complex at Lost Site from the Superior Dry Lake Bed in the current day Superior Valley, northwest of Barstow, California.  The Secondary attack displayed as the right arrow in the graphic below:  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A rock alignment on the Superior Valley floor near ‘Ram Mesa’ provides details that suggest a large group of Uto-Aztecan were pursued upon to the mesa.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the purpose of preservation and security, the location of the rock alignment is on file with the Barstow Area Office of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The graphic above displays the context of the rock alignment. The rock alignment can be interpreted in the following manner: A large war party of Uto-Aztecan were chased upon to the mesa by a smaller war party of Hokan, who, in turn, were followed by a group (red dot) that may have been follow-on warriors held in reserve or non-combatant support functions such as cooks, medical practitioners and/or weapons makers. The rock formation also stipulates that the Hokan were in contact with the Uto-Aztecan. The pointed configuration indicates ‘war/fighting’. Therefore, the tip of the solid red, arrowhead, figure touching the larger, spearhead shaped outline suggests that this was a running battle.

 

While the smaller attacking force pressed a running battle up on to Ram Mesa, a larger force of Hokan attacked the Uto-Aztecan stationed at or near the narrow gap at Lost Site.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glyphs on both sides of Lost Site attest to the presence of armed conflict. As the forces of the Uto-Aztecan dwindled, they began an organized withdrawal from their position, moving south along the base of the cliff face, but did not proceed toward present day Murphy’s Well where they could have become trapped.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Below, the graphic demonstrates how the Uto-Aztecan defenders lead the attacking Hokan (red arrow) into an ambush by Uto-Aztecan warriors waiting in the gap.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The gap, in military terms is a choke point where the attacking Hokan were forced, by the terrain, to fight hand-to-hand with knives and war clubs, because the confined space prevented them from using their more advanced weapons system, the atlatl and dart.

 

The overview below shows the Uto-Aztecan dividing into three groups as they withdrew from the Lost Site ambush/gap.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

One group executed an attack against the right flank of the Hokan pursuing the survivors of the Black Wash attack and two days of fighting within Black Canyon.

A second group (yellow arrow-center) of survivors from Lost Site reinforced the Black Canyon survivors. Together they proceeded toward Tortoise Head Gap. The third group (top-left yellow arrow) continued on, drawing more Hokan attackers away from the main Uto-Aztecan forces headed for Tortoise Head Gap. A petroglyph at Deer Valley Rock Art Center, Phoenix, Arizona supports these tactics and pre-planned strategies.

 

Tortoise Head Gap

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The graphic above displays Tortoise Head Gap, a strategic, natural terrain feature that creates a military ‘choke point’ where hundreds or thousands of warriors on both sides were forced to fight hand-to-hand combat. By relocating into the Tortoise Head Gap, the Uto-Aztecans, armed primarily with thrusting spears, gained weapons parity with their enemy the Hokan.

 

Below, the various arrows demonstrate the actions and movement of the two forces. The solid red arrow represents the Hokan as they pursued their prey, the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Uto-Aztecan, relocating from Black Canyon. The dashed red arrow represents Hokan warriors drawn off the main force by the Uto-Aztecan group from Lost Site, represented by the yellow dotted arrow. The Dashed yellow arrow were defenders who attacked the right flank of the Hokan as they pursued the defenders from both Black Canyon and Lost Site, as a more formidable combined force.

 

The Tortoise Head Gap is so called because it can be seen from a long distance and is represented by a manufactured replica located across from Inscription Canyon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The graphic shows the head outlined in a broken white line, which actually traces the physical terrain features legally viewed from Opal Mountain Road. The yellow arrow represents the defenders entering the compressing neck area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To the rear of the ‘head’ area are sheer basalt walls about twelve feet high, but a single gap area permits exit/escape from the ‘head’. The exit also provides a very confining ‘choke point’, which is easily defended by a small force acting as Rear Guard for the main body of the escaping Uto-Aztecan forces.

 

 

Access Gap

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once through the small exit of the ‘tortoise head’ the ground surface again becomes easier to navigate, but the area is also semi-constrained and armed forces could easily become trapped. However, to the rear of this formation is another confining gap, which this author has chosen to call ‘Access Gap’, because it provides the finial access to the top of the mountain while simultaneously providing a highly defensible position requiring a modicum of armed resources.